Monday, October 13, 2014

Nobel Prizes 23014

2014 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences
CivilsThe 2014 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Jean Tirole "for his analysis of market power and regulation".
The economics prize – whose formal name is the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel – was created in 1968, while the physics, chemistry, physiology, literature and peace prizes were first awarded in 1901.
Jean Tirole, born in August 9, 1953 at Troyes, France is a professor of economics. He works on industrial organization, game theory, banking and finance, and economics and psychology. After receiving his PhD from MIT in 1981, he worked as a researcher at l'Ecole nationale des ponts et chaussees until 1984. From 1984-1991 he worked as a Professor of Economics at MIT. He was president of the Econometric Society in 1998 and of the European Economic Association in 2001. Tirole was affiliated to Toulouse 1 Capitole University, Toulouse, France at the time of the award of Nobel Prize.

2014 Nobel Peace PrizeCivilsThe Nobel Peace Prize 2014 was awarded jointly to Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzay "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education".

Kailash Satyarthi
Born:
11 January 1954, Vidisha, India
Residence at the time of the award: India
Prize share: 1/2
Showing great personal courage, Kailash Satyarthi, maintaining Gandhi’s tradition, has headed various forms of protests and demonstrations, all peaceful, focusing on the grave exploitation of children for financial gain. He has also contributed to the development of important international conventions on children’s rights.
Malala YousafzayBorn:12 July 1997, Mingora, Pakistan
Residence at the time of the award: United Kingdom
Despite her youth, Malala Yousafzay has already fought for several years for the right of girls to education, and has shown by example that children and young people, too, can contribute to improving their own situations. This she has done under the most dangerous circumstances. Through her heroic struggle she has become a leading spokesperson for girls’ rights to education.

2014 Nobel Prize in LiteratureCivilsThe Nobel Prize in Literature 2014 was awarded to Patrick Modiano "for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation".

Patrick Modiano was born on July 30, 1945, in Boulogne-Billancourt, a suburb of Paris. Modiano made his debut as a writer with La place de l’etoile, a novel that attracted much attention. His works centre on topics such as memory, oblivion, identity and guilt.

“Modiano best known work is called Missing Person. It’s the story about a detective who has lost his memory and his final case is finding out who he really is; he is tracing his own steps through history to find out who he is.”
2014 Nobel Prize in ChemistryCivilsThe Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 was awarded jointly to Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy".

Eric Betzig, U.S. citizen born 1960 in Ann Arbor, MI, USA, Ph.D. in 1988 from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA and Group Leader at Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA, USA.

Stefan W. Hell, German citizen born 1962 in Arad, Romania, Ph.D. in 1990 from the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Presently Director at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, and Division head at the German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

William E. Moerner, U.S. citizen born 1953 in Pleasanton, CA, USA, Ph.D. in 1982 from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Professor of Applied Physics at Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

2014 Nobel Prize in PhysicsCivilsThe Nobel Prize in Physics 2014 was awarded jointly to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources".

Isamu Akasaki, Japanese citizen, born 1929 in Chiran, Japan, Ph.D. in 1964 from Nagoya University, Japan. Professor at Meijo University, Nagoya, and Distinguished Professor at Nagoya University, Japan.

Hiroshi Amano, Japanese citizen, born 1960 in Hamamatsu, Japan. Ph.D. in 1989 from Nagoya University, Japan, currently Professor at Nagoya University, Japan.

Shuji Nakamura, American citizen, born 1954 in Ikata, Japan, Ph.D. in 1994 from University of Tokushima, Japan, currently Professor at University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or MedicineCivilsThe Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 was divided, one half awarded to John O'Keefe, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain".

John O’Keefe, holds both American and British citizenships, was born in 1939 in New York City, USA, doctoral degree in physiological psychology from McGill University, Canada in 1967, currently Director of the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre in Neural Circuits and Behaviour at University College London.

May-Britt Moser, Norwegian citizen, born in Fosnavag, Norway in 1963, Ph.D. in neurophysiology in 1995, currently Director of the Centre for Neural Computation in Trondheim.

Edvard I. Moser, Norwegian citizen, was born 1962 in Alesund, Ph.D. in neurophysiology from the University of Oslo in 1995, currently Director of the Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience in Trondheim.

About the Nobel Prize:
On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace - the Nobel Prizes. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden's central bank) established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
At the Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies the Nobel Laureates receive three things: a Nobel Diploma, a Nobel Medal and a document confirming the Nobel Prize amount.
Between 1901 and 2013, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 561 times which include 45 times to women.

Nobel Laureates from India:
Ronald Ross, India, Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology 1902
Har Gobind Khorana, India, Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology 1968
Rudyard Kipling, British India (now India), Nobel Prize in Literature 1907
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, India, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, India, Nobel Prize in Physics 1930
Rabindranath Tagore, India, Nobel Prize in Literature 1913
Amartya Sen, India, Prize in Economic Sciences 1998
Kailash Satyarthi, Nobel Prize in Peace 2014

The Youngest Nobel Laureates Category wise
Category
Name
Year of Award
Age of Nobel Laureate
Physics
William Lawrence Bragg
1915
25
Chemistry
Frederic Joliot
1935
35
Physiology or Medicine
Frederick Banting
1923
32
Literature
Rudyard Kipling
1907
42
Peace
Malala Yousafzay
2014
17
Economic Sciences
Kenneth J. Arrow
1972
51

Saturday, October 11, 2014

Prime Minister launched Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana to realise Gram Swaraj

Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) on the birth anniversary of Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan on 11 October 2014. SAGY will be implemented under the overall supervision of Union Ministry of Rural Development.
The programme is an ambitious village development project under which each Member of Parliament will take the responsibility for developing physical and institutional infrastructure in three villages by 2019.
The primary goal is to develop three Adarsh Grams or model villages by March 2019, of which one would be achieved by 2016. Thereafter, five such Adarsh Grams (one per year) will be selected and developed by 2024.
Objective of the SAGY
The main objectives of SAGY are:
  • To trigger processes which lead to holistic development of the identified Gram Panchayats
  • To substantially improve the standard of living and quality of life of all sections of the population through: a) Improved basic amenities; b) Higher productivity; c) Enhanced human development; d) Better livelihood opportunities; e) Reduced disparities; f) Access to rights and entitlements; g) Wider social mobilization; and h) Enriched social capital
  • To generate models of local level development and effective local governance which can motivate and inspire neighbouring Gram Panchayats to learn and adapt
  • To nurture the identified Adarsh Grams as schools of local development to train other Gram Panchayats
Main highlights of the SAGY
  • It aims to keep the soul of rural India alive while providing its people with quality access to basic amenities and opportunities to enable them to shape their own destiny.
  • It places equal stress on nurturing values of national pride, patriotism, community spirit, self-confidence and on developing infrastructure.
  • It is unique and transformative as it has a holistic approach towards development.
  • It envisages integrated development of the selected village across multiple areas such as agriculture, health, education, sanitation, environment, livelihoods etc.
  • SAGY aims at instilling certain values, such as people's participation, Antyodaya, gender equality, dignity of women, social justice, spirit of community service and etc in the villages and their people so that they get transformed into models for others.
  • The gram panchayat would be the basic unit for development. It will have a population of 3000-5000 in plain areas and 1000-3000 in hilly, tribal and difficult areas.
  • In districts where this unit size is not available, the gram panchayats approximating the desirable population size may be chosen.
  • The MP would be free to identify a suitable gram panchayat for being developed as Adarsh Gram, other than his/her own village or that of his/her spouse.
  • The scheme will be implemented through a Village Development Plan that would be prepared for every identified gram panchayat with special focus on enabling every poor household to come out of poverty.
  • The constituency fund, MPLADS, would be available to fill critical financing gaps.
  • SAGY gives focus to community participation.
  • The participation of women in the decision-making process will be encouraged. The scheme envisages holding Mahila Sabhas and Bal Sabhas to discuss women and children specific issues and concerns.
  • Ensuring universal access to education facilities, adult literacy, e-literacy are also important goals of SAGY.
  • Adoption and adaptation of technology and introduction of innovations are critical to this programme. This will include use of space application and remote sensing for planning, mobile based technology for monitoring, agriculture technology for increasing productivity etc.
  • At the national level, a separate, real time web based monitoring system will be put in place for the scheme covering all aspects and components.
Monitoring of SAGY
  • The Union Ministry of Rural Development will put in place a specially designed capacity building programme for government functionaries at different levels including gram panchayats.
  • At the state level, there will be an Empowered Committee headed by the Chief Secretary consisting of the relevant departments and including experts, as required with at least two civil society representatives.
  • The District Collector will be the nodal officer for implementing the SAGY. He will conduct a monthly review meeting with representatives of the participating Line Departments. The Members of Parliament concerned will chair the review meetings.

17th Asian Games Incheon 2014 held in South Korea

17th Asian Games Incheon 2014 was held in Incheon, South Korea from 19 September to 4 October 2014, featuring 439 events in 36 sports. It is officially called XVII Asiad. It is governed by the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA). The theme of the 2014 Asian Games is Meet Asia’s Future.
The moscot of the Asian Games Incheon 2014 was three spotted Harbour Seal siblings named Barame, Chumuro and Vichuon meaning wind, dance and light in Korean language.
The logo of the Asian Games Incheon 2014 portrayed a huge wing consisting a string of A, the first letter of Asia, with a shining sun at its upper left, symbolizing the Asian people holding hands in the sky.
The Slogan of the Asian Games Incheon 2014 was Diversity Shines Here that represents and highlights the significance of Asia’s wonderful diversity in history, cultures, and religions.

To help English speaking visitors, mobile apps named WAZE and JiHaChul. Mobile app WAZE was provided to navigate on the routes of Incheon Asian games 2014 and JiHaChul provided maps of the routes in advance respectively. Next Asian Games Incheon will be hosted by the Singapore in 2018.
Ranks of the countries in the Asian Games Incheon 2014
Rank
Country
Gold
Silver
Bronze
Total
1
China
151
108
83
 342
2
South Korea
79
71
84          
234
3
Japan
47
76
77
200
4
Kazakhstan
28
23
33
84
5
Iran
21
18
18
57
6
Thailand
12
7
28
47
7
North Korea
11
11
14
36
8
India     
11
10
36
57
9
Chinese Taipei
10          
18
23
51
10
Qatar
10
0
4
14
Gold Medals for India
Names
Sport
Category
Jitu Rai
Shooting
Men's 50 metre pistol
Rajat Chauhan
Sandeep Kumar
Abhishek Verma
Archery
Men's team compound
Saurav Ghosal
Mahesh Mangaonkar
Harinder Pal Sandhu
Kush Kumar
Squash
Men’s team
Yogeshwar Dutt
Wrestling
Men's freestyle 65 kg
Seema Punia
Athletics
Women's discus throw
Sania Mirza
Saketh Myneni
Tennis
Mixed doubles
Mary Kom
Boxing
Women's 51 kg
Men’s hockey team
Field hockey
Men
Priyanka Pawar
Tintu Luka
Mandeep Kaur
M R Poovamma
Athletics
Women's 4 x 400 metres relay
Women's kabaddi team
Kabaddi
Women
Men's kabaddi team
Kabaddi
Men