Sunday, August 17, 2014

Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman to bag Fields Medal

Maryam Mirzakhani, an Iranian born mathematician, became the first woman to win coveted Fields Medal on 13 August 2014 in Seoul, South Korea. The award recognized her contributions to the field of geometry particularly in studying the symmetry of curved surfaces such as spheres.

Mirzakhani’s work has implications for the study of cryptography and prime numbers as well as for physics and quantum field theory.
She was one of four mathematicians who were awarded the Fields Medal 2014. Three other awardees were:
• Artur Avila of the Institute of Mathematics of Jussieu, for his contributions in Dynamical Systems Theory
• Manjul Bhargava of Princeton University, for developing new approach in the geometry of numbers
• Martin Hairer of the University of Warwick, for his contributions to the Theory of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations

Maryam Mirzakhani
Maryam Mirzakhani was born in Tehran in 1977. Initially, she chose to be a writer, but her fluency in solving mathematical queries shifted her interests. She enjoyed pure mathematics thereafter. 

Maryam Mirzakhani made a number of contributions to the theory of moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces. She even proved that the system Earthquake Flow of William Thurston on Teichmüller space is ergodic. 

She won gold medals in 1994 and 1995 International Mathematical Olympiad. She was recipient of 2013 AMS Ruth Lyttle Satter Prize in Mathematics and AMS Blumenthal Award 2009. 

Fields Medal
Established in 1936, Fields Medal is known as the Nobel Prize of mathematics.  The prize includes a medal which is stamped with the head of Archimedes and a cash component of 8000 British Pound. The Fields Medal 2014 was held in Seoul, South Korea and were announced by the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM).

Judicial Appointments Commission bill passed

Rajya Sabha on 14th August passed the landmark National Judicial Appointments Commission Bill, 2014, which was unanimously cleared by the Lok Sabha on 13th August. The Bill was passed by a voice vote. A Constitution Amendment Bill to facilitate the establishment of a Commission to appoint judges to higher judiciary was also passed by majority in the Upper House. This will come into effect only after ratification of the Constitution Amendment Bill by 50 percent state assemblies. 

With this step, the Collegium system of judges appointing judges will be changed with a six-member Commission headed by Chief Justice of India making the appointments and transfers. 

The Constitution Amendment Bill seeks to lay down the architecture for setting up of the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) through another enabling bill. 

After the bill becomes law, the government will have a say in the appointment of Supreme Court and High Court judges after 21 years. Once the Commission is formed, 266 vacancies for judges in 24 High Courts are likely to be filled expeditiously. The Supreme Court, which has a sanctioned strength of 31, also has one vacancy. The appointment of new judges is also expected to speed up the backlog of legal cases in courts across the country. 

Under the statute amendment bill, Chief Justice of India will head the NJAC. Besides the CJI, the judiciary would be represented by two senior judges of the Supreme Court. Two eminent personalities and the Law Minister will be the other members of the proposed body. 

Important points:
  • Parliament has passed the 99th Constitutional Amendment to create a National Judicial Appointments Commission, and another Bill mandating its procedures.
  • The commission consists of the Chief Justice of India, his two senior most colleagues, the Law Minister and two eminent persons. The persons last mentioned are to be chosen by the Prime Minister, the Chief Justice and the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha.
  • The commission is to recommend persons for appointment as Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
  • The Bills as enacted were not circulated for public discussion and comment, although discussion on the broad contours of such a body has been going on for several years.
  • These enactments will replace the system which has held sway since 1992. In that year, the Supreme Court virtually rewrote the constitutional provisions which gave primacy to the government in such appointments, obliging consultation with the judiciary but not more.

Smt. Rajni Razdan takes over as Chairman, UPSC

Smt. Rajni Razdan, Member, Union Public Service Commission, took the oath of office and secrecy as Chairman, Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) here today. The oath was administered by Prof. D.P. Agrawal, outgoing Chairman of the Commission. 

Smt. Razdan, an Indian Administrative Service Officer of Haryana Cadre of 1973 Batch, joined the Commission as Member on April 19, 2010. Prior to joining the UPSC, she was Secretary, Department of Pension & Pensioners’ Welfare and Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances. Smt. Rajni Razdan has held various important positions in Government of India and Government of Haryana. 

National Mission to Improve the Accuracy of Monsoon Forecasts

Under the National Monsoon Mission initiative institutions of Earth System Science Organisation (ESSO), the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (ESSO-IITM), Pune, India Meteorological Department (ESSO-IMD), Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (ESSO-INCOIS), Hyderabad and National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ESSO-NCMRWF), NOIDA, have embarked upon to build a state- of-the-art coupled ocean-atmospheric climate model for a) improved prediction of monsoon rainfall on extended range to seasonal time scale (16 days to one season) and b) improved prediction of temperature, rainfall and extreme weather events on short to medium range time scale (up to 15 days) so that forecast skill gets quantitatively improved further for operational services of Earth System Science Organisation- India Meteorological Department (ESSO-IMD). 

One of the Implementation Agreements - Dynamical Seasonal Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (Establishment of Monsoon desk) was signed during the visit of President Obama in November 2010 under which Indian and US scientists are working jointly on seasonal forecast. ESSO-NCMRWF is putting efforts to improve the adopted unified model in collaboration with UK for seamless prediction of monsoon rainfall forecasts in all temporal ranges (Short-up to 72 hours, Medium-3 to 10 days and extended beyond 10 days) including extreme weather phenomena. 

The dynamical forecast for 2013 based on this model was 104 to 108 % of LPA and observed rainfall was 106 % of LPA. The forecast for 2014 was 96% of LPA. On the other hand ESSO-IMDs monsoon forecasts based on statistical tools are also found to be reasonably accurate .In addition, the extended range prediction of monsoon rainfall was initiated during monsoon 2014. 

DGR Corporate Conclave-2014

A Corporate Conclave is being organized by Directorate General Resettlement, Department of Ex-servicemen Welfare, Ministry of Defence on 19th August, 2014 at Manekshaw Centre, Delhi Cantt, New Delhi. Hon’ble Defence Minister will be the Chief Guest of the event. More than 300 CEOs, Vice-Presidents and Sr. level Human Resource Executives from different PSUs, both private and public enterprises are expected to participate in the Conclave. A large number of Senior Armed Forces officers, Secretaries from various departments of the Government of India and other Senior Government officials will be attending the Conclave. 

Since officers and men from the Armed Forces have to compulsorily retire at an early age, their resettlement is a national obligation and thus in national interest. The Private and Public Sectors should absorb such ex-servicemen for mutual benefit. 

As repository of the largest reserve of trained, experienced and most disciplined manpower, Directorate General Resettlement can meet the requirements of private and public enterprises and Government Sectors in almost all fields. While service officers at higher ranks are most suited as Independent Directors, other officers and men can help corporates grow in every field including taking on their Corporate Social Responsibility Challenge. 

The objective of Directorate General Resettlement Corporate Conclave-2014 is to present the competencies of Ex-Servicemen which belong to an untapped human resource pool. Further, the Conclave expects to change the perception regarding retired armed forces personnel being suitable only for security duties to a major tool for nation building and corporate growth in every sphere. 

Saturday, August 9, 2014

UNCTAD to set up excellence centers in India

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has announced to set up a first of its kind Centre of Excellence in Entrepreneurship Training in association with EMPRETEC and West Bengal government. This Centre will be the first of its kind in the world connecting not only all states of the country but also the developing and developed nations of the world to nurture and hold entrepreneurship

EMPRETEC is a United Nations programme by UNCTAD's Division of Investment and Enterprise to promote the creation of sustainable small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). 

EMPRETEC is a United Nations programme established by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) to promote the creation of sustainable, innovative, and internationally competitive small- and medium-sized enterprises

EMPRETEC is an integrated capacity building programme of UNCTAD in the area of SMEs and entrepreneurial skills promotion. It is dedicated to helping promising entrepreneurs put their ideas into action and fledgling businesses to grow. The programme is part of UNCTAD's mandate on enhancing productive capacity and international competitiveness for the benefit of economic development, poverty eradication and equal participation of developing countries and transition economies in the world economy.

The name EMPRETEC - the Spanish acronym for emprendedores (entrepreneurs) and tecnología (technology) - was first introduced in Argentina in 1988. Since its inception, the EMPRETEC programme has been initiated in 27 countries, assisting more than 120,000 entrepreneurs through local market driven EMPRETEC/business support centres.

UNCTAD:UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment, and development issues. The organization's goals are to: "maximize the trade, investment and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in their efforts to integrate into the world economy on an equitable basis."

The primary objective of UNCTAD is to formulate policies relating to all aspects of development including trade, aid, transport, finance and technology. The conference ordinarily meets once in four years; the permanent secretariat is in Geneva

RBI issued drafted guidelines for implementation of Bharat Bill Payment System

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on 7 August 2014 issued draft guidelines for implementation of Bharat Bill Payment System (BPPS), an anytime anywhere bill payment system. The proposed guidelines describe the basic requirements of operating the BBPS.
Bharat Bill Payment System is intended for the implementation of a unified bill payment system across the country. It would enable the customers to pay the bills with the help of agents and getting instant confirmation of the payment made. School fees, municipal taxes and utility bills payments would become easier now.
This integrated bill payment system will comprise of two entities:
  • Entity operating at Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS) will be setting up the standards related to payments, clearance and settlement process
  • Second entity would be Bharat Bill Payment Operating Units (BBPOUs). It will be carrying out the operations in adherence to the standards fixed by BBPS.
Authorised entities such as agents, banks, service providers, payment gateways would be the participants at the Bharat Bill Payment System.
Bill Payment in India
Generally, most of the retail transactions are carried out through bill payments. The G. Padmanabhan Committee was formed by RBI to study the Feasibility of Implementation of GIRO-based Payment Systems anticipated that around 30800 million bills amounting to more than 600000 crore rupees are paid each year in 20 Indian cities.
These payments are accepted in both cash and cheque. The existing bill payment systems are secure enough, but they do not address the concerns of the customers completely. The centralized Bharat Bill Payment System would be a appropriate solution for the same.

Union Government granted Navratna Status to CONCOR

Container Corporation of India Limited (CONCOR) on 23 July 2014 was accorded Navratna Status by the Department of Public Enterprises under Union Ministry of Heavy Industry and Public Enterprises. CONCOR is the 17th Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE) to achieve Navratna Status.
CONCOR gives multi-modal logistics support for the country's exim (exports and imports) and domestic trade and commerce.
The granting of Navratna status entitles the company boards to do investments up to 1000 crore rupees or 15% of their net worth on a single project or 30% of their net worth in the whole year (not exceeding 1000 crore rupees) without seeking government permission.
Besides, it also entitles the Boards of Navaratna enhanced powers in the areas of  (i) capital expenditure; (ii) equity investment in  joint ventures/subsidiaries in India or abroad,  (iii) human resources  development (iv) orgnaisational restructuring and (v) raising of  debt from the domestic capital markets and borrowings from international markets.

Major criteria of awarding Navratna Status are:

• A Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE) should be a Schedule A and Miniratna Category – I company.
• The CPSEs should have at least three Excellent or Very Good Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) ratings during the last five years.
• The CPSE should have a composite score of 60 or above out of 100 marks based on its performance during the last three years on the following six identified efficiency parameters:
Efficiency Parameters
Maximum Marks
Net Profit to Worth
Manpower cost to Cost of Production/Services
Gross Margin as capital employed
Gross Profit as Turnover
Earnings per Share
Inter-sectoral comparison based on Net profit to Net worth
CONCOR was incorporated in March 1988 under the Companies Act, 1956 and commenced operation from November 1989 taking over the existing network of 7 ICDs (Inland Container Depots) from the Indian Railways. It is now the market leader having the largest network of 62 ICDs or Dry ports in India. 
Its current Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) is Anil Kumar Gupta.

About Navratna
Navratna was the title given originally to 9 Public Sector Enterprises (PSEs) identified by the Government of India in 1997 as "public sector companies that have comparative advantages", giving them greater autonomy to compete in the global market so as to "support [them] in their drive to become global giants.

Egypt launched construction work of a new Suez Canal

Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi on 6 August 2014 inaugurated the work on a new Suez Canal alongside the 145 years old historic Suez Canal. The project has been launched with an aim to speed up the traffic along the existing waterway and boost the battered economy of Egypt.  It will expand trade between Europe and Asia. 
The total estimated cost of digging the new waterway would be around 4 Billion Dollar. The aim is to raise Egypt as a major trade hub internationally. The new waterway would be funded by Egyptian and foreign investors.
The project will be completed by about 20 private Egyptian companies and the entire project will be headed by armed forces to ensure security and safety. 

About Historic Suez Canal
Suez Canal was opened in 1869 after ten years of construction. It is an artificial waterway in Egypt that connects Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea. The canal allows traders and ships to navigate between Europe without passing through Africa. It is owned and maintained by Suez Canal Authority of Egypt.
Suez Canal is an important source of revenue for the country. Egypt earns about 5 billion US dollar every year through Suez Canal.

Union Ministry of HRD set up Hari Gautam Committee to review the status of UGC

The Union Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) on 3 August 2014 set up a four member committee to review the present status of Universities Grants Commission’s (UGC). The committee will be headed by former UGC chairman Hari Gautam. 

The other members of the committee will be CM Jariwala, former dean of law, Banaras Hindu University and Kapil Kapoor, former Pro-Vice Chancellor of Jawaharlal Nehru University.  RP Sisodia, Joint Secretary (higher education) will be the member secretary of the committee. The committees have six months time to submit its report.

The committee will suggest ways to restructure and reorganise the panel to attain better performance in order to meet desired objectives.

The committee has been given 14 items for review, which includes evaluation of the performance of UGC in coordinating and determining standards of education in universities, conducting an audit of its regulatory reach and identifying strengths and weaknesses in this aspect.

About University Grants Commission (UGC)
UGC is the apex regulatory body for higher education in the country. The commission was formally set up by an Act of Parliament in 1956. It is the statutory body for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education in the country. 

The higher education sector in India has emerged as one of the largest in the world in terms of number of institutions and the second largest by number of students with nearly 28 million students in 726 universities and about 38000 colleges.

Union Government introduced two Labour Reform Bills in Lok Sabha

Union Labour and Employment Minister Narendra Singh Tomar tabled two Labour Reform Bills in the Lok Sabha on 7 August 2014. The two bills are The Factories (Amendment) Bill 2014 and the Apprentices (Amendment) Bill 2014.
The two bills aim at enabling the government to make certain rules in consultation with the States to ensure safety and welfare of workers at workplace.
The purpose is to reform years-old Labour Laws- the Factories Act 1948 and the Apprentices Act 1961. They would be intended to generate more employment opportunities in the nation.  Besides, it would make it easier to do business in India, with provisions to allow flexibility in both hiring and working hours.
Earlier on 30 July 2014, Union Cabinet approved the amendments to labour laws.
The Factories (Amendment) Bill, 2014 centres on five proposed changes:
  • Improving workers’ safety
  • Increasing the provision for overtime
  • Increasing the penalty for violations of the Act
  • Relaxing the norms for women to work night shifts in some industry segments
  • Reducing the number of days an employee needs to work before becoming eligible for benefits such as paid leave.
Main provisions of the Factories Bill, 2014
  • It seeks to allow women to work at night between 7 PM and 6 AM, provided their work places have sufficient amenities and ensure their safety
  • It allows prosecution of factory owners to be commuted to penalties for minor offences
  • It doubles the provision of overtime from 50 hours a quarter to 100 hours in some cases, and from 75 hours to 125 hours per quarter in occupations related to public interest with the approval of state governments
  • It also proposes to change the eligibility criteria for entitlement of annual leave with pay.
  • It cuts the minimum number of days employees must have worked to claim the benefit from 240 to 90 days.
  • Wilful obstruction of an inspector from carrying out his duties will be slapped with a penalty of 30000 rupees from 10000 rupees
  • In case of double employment of a child, both the parents as well the person benefiting from him could be slapped 3000 rupees now instead of 1000 rupees imposed earlier.
The Main highlights of the Apprentices (Amendment) Bill 2014
  • Training of non-engineers as apprentices
  • Expand employment opportunities
  • Appointment of apprentice from employer’s native state
  • Allows employer to formulate its own policy of recruitment
  • Proposes to expand the scope of employment for apprentices and push for the induction of more non-engineers as apprentices.
  • Aims at allowing young job seekers and students to gain industry-relevant skills on the shop floor.
  • Allows industries to appoint apprentices from a different state from where the employer is located.
  • Every employer allowed formulating its own policy on recruiting apprentices who have completed training in the employer’s establishment.
The Factories Act 1948
The Factories Act 1948, law related to the regulation of labour working in factories, was embodied in the Factories Act, 1934. Receiving assent in September 1948, the act came into force in April 1949 as the Factories Act 1948.
The Act was amended several times thereafter but the framework remained the same. The Act was first amended in 1954 through the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1954 followed by two more amendments- The Factories (Amendment) Act, 1976 and The Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987.
The Apprentices Act 1961
Enacted in 1961, the Apprentices Act came into force in 1962. The Act was enacted for regulating the programme of training of employees working as apprentices in the company. It makes it mandatory for the employers of private and public sectors to have required training infrastructure as laid down in the Act.
The Apprentices Act 1961 was first amended in 1973 through the Apprentices (Amendment) Bill 1973 for induction of graduate engineers as "Graduate" Apprentices. The Act was further amended through the Apprentices (Amendment) Bill 1986 to include training of 10+2 vocational stream as "Technician (Vocational)" Apprentices.

Ramon Magsaysay Award 2014 announced

The prestigious Ramon Magsaysay Awards for year 2014 was announced on 31 July 2014. The list of awardees included six winners among five individuals and one organization from Pakistan. 

The 2014 Awardees are:

•    Hu Shuli: She is a Chinese investigative journalist whose work has led to the ouster of corrupt officials. She is the founder and former editor of Caijing a business magazine famed for its groundbreaking investigative reporting that has had a profound impact on China.
•    Saur Marlina Manurung: She is being recognized for her ennobling passion to protect and improve the lives of Indonesia’s forest people, and her energizing leadership of volunteers in SOKOLA’s customized education program. She put up a Jungle School program for children of Indonesia’s Orang Rimba, or forest people.

•    Omara Khan Masoudi from Afghanistan:  He is being recognized for his courage, labor, and leadership in protecting Afghan cultural heritage. Masoudi was awarded for his courage in protecting Afghan cultural heritage. At great risk to his life, the deputy director of the National Museum of Afghanistan in Kabul led his colleagues in moving some of the museum’s most precious objects to safety during the Taliban’s assault on his country’s cultural treasures in the 1990s.

•    The Citizens Foundation from Pakistan:  It is a non-profit organisation (NGO) in Pakistan founded by six business leaders. It was recognized for building 1000 schools over hundreds of cities and towns in the country with the world’s second highest number of children who are out of school. 
•    Wang Canfa from China:  Wang Canfa founded the Center for Legal Assistance to Pollution Victims, which has offered free legal services to thousands of people and provided environmental law training to lawyers and others.

•    Randy Halasan for Emergent Leadership from the Philippines:  He was chosen for the award for serving the indigenous Matigsalug tribe. He put in huge efforts in teaching the children of the Matigsalug tribe in one of the remotest mountain villages in Mindanao.

About Ramon Magsaysay Awards

The award was established in 1957. The Ramon Magsaysay Award is Asia’s highest honor and is widely regarded as the region’s equivalent of the Nobel Prize.  
It celebrates the memory and leadership example of the third Philippine president after whom the award is named.
The award is given every year to individuals or organizations in Asia who manifest the same selfless service that ruled the life of the late and beloved Filipino leader.

Bharathiya Mahila Bank Ltd bagged the Core Banking System Initiative Award-2014

Bharatiya Mahila Bank Ltd bagged the Core Banking System Initiative Award for the year 2014 at the Asian Banking and Finance - Retail Banking Awards 2014. The award ceremony was held in Singapore on 31 July 2014.
Usha Ananthasubramanian, Chairman & Managing Director, Bharatiya Mahila Bank received the award.
It got the award as it launched its operations with Core Banking Solutions and ATMs (Automated Teller Machines) from first day of it operation and it was achieved with in a period less than 2 months from the grant of license by RBI to the launch date on 19 November 2013.
About Bharathiya Mahila Bank
Bharatiya Mahila Bank Ltd is the first of its kind in the Banking Industry in India formed with a vision of economic empowerment for women.
It was incorporated under the Companies Act 1956 on 5 August 2013 and it received the certificate of commencement of Business on 22 August 2013. RBI granted the Banking License to the bank on 25 September 2013. It was formally inaugurated on 19 November 2013.
The Bank’s Corporate Office is at the IFCI Towers, Nehru Place, New Delhi.
The Bank, at present has 23 branches across the country and aims to add 55 - 60 branches in the current financial year.

Royal Society honoured the geneticist Sir Alec Jeffreys with Copley Medal 2014

The geneticist Prof Sir Alec Jeffreys who discovered DNA fingerprinting in 1984, was awarded with Copley Medal 2014 by Royal Society of London. He received the award for his great work in variation and mutation of human genome.

His work, in discovering the method for identifying the individuals with their DNA, helped the forensic departments to solve the questions of identity and kinship.

The method was used for the first time in 1985 to settle an immigration dispute. It was commercialized in 1987. Until then all tests were run in Prof Jeffreys' own lab at the University of Leicester.

About Copley Medal
• Royal Society of London started awarding this medal in 1731 and is treated as the oldest Science prize.
• It was awarded 170 years earlier to the first Noble prize awarded in 1901.
• Sir Albert Einstien, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday and Stephen Hawking were one of many recipients of this award for their Scientific Research.
• Noble Prize winning Physicist Prof Sir Andre Geim got the award for 2013 for his pioneering part of research into Graphene.
• British biochemist Dorothy Hodgkin awarded by this medal in 1976 remains the only woman awardee.

AIMA Managing India Awards 2014 awards announced

AIMA Managing India Awards 2014 were announced on 6 August 2014 in a function held at Hotel Taj Palace in New Delhi. The awards were given by Union Home Affairs Minister Rajnath Singh to distinguished and eminent organization / personality who have made outstanding contributions.

Recipient of awards in different category 

• AIMA Corporate Citizen Award 2014 – Shiv Nadar, Founder & Chairman, HCL and Shiv Nadar Foundation
• AIMA Business Leader of the Year’ Award 2014 – Adi Godrej, Godrej group Chairman 
• AIMA Lifetime Contribution Award 2014 – Deepak Parek, the HDFC Chairman 
• AIMA Outstanding Institution Builder’ Award 2014 – Sengamedu Srinivasa Badrinath, the Founder and Chairman Emeritus, Sankara Nethralaya 
• AIMA Entrepreneur of the Year 2014 – Chandra Shekhar Ghosh, Chairman and Managing Director, Bandhan Financial Services
• AIMA Emerging Business Leader of the Year 2014 - M G George Muthoot, Chairman, Muthoot Group
• AIMA Outstanding Contribution to Media 2014 – Mammen Mathew, Chief Editor and Managing Director, Malayala Manorama Group
• AIMA Director of the Year 2014 – Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra, Film Writer, Producer, Director
• AIMA Transformational Business Leader of the Year 2014 – Uday Kotak, Executive Vice Chairman and Managing Director, Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd
Organisations awarded and honoured were
 Indian Multinational of the Year – TCS Ltd. (N Chandrsekaran, CEO & MD TCS Ltd. to receive the award)
• Outstanding PSU of the Year – NTPC Ltd 
 Emerging Business Leader of the Year – Mr M. G. George Muthoot, Chairman, the Muthoot Group
• MNC in India of the Year – Samsung India Electronics Ltd

About All India Management Association (AIMA) 
The All India Management Association is a national apex body of professional management in India set up in 1957 with active support of the Government of India and Industry.